The Canadian lynx’s diet consists of mainly snowshoe hare, their populations fluctuate almost exactly together meaning that if the lynx goes extinct than the hare will over populate. The Canadian lynx (Lynx canadensis) and the bobcat (Lynx rufus) are both species from the lynx genre and the felidaefamily; they are also the smaller ones of their kind. 2007). These lynxes are primarily solit… The heights of the shoulder of these animals vary from 19 – 22 inches. Lynx are not fast runners. We consider these as indicators of environmental conditions experienced by lynx and relevant at both broad and local spatial scales. The standard ellipse area (SEA) characterizes spatial variability in the stable isotope data as a two‐dimensional standard deviation, governed by the covariance matrix between δ13C and δ15N values and containing approximately 40% of the data (Jackson et al. Diet: Snowshoe hares are lynx’s primary food. Both species are strongly associated with high-elevation forests that have cold, snowy winters. Stable isotope ratios are expressed using conventional delta notation (Ben‐David and Flaherty 2012). Snowshoe hares are the main source of food for Canada lynx. In our study, yearling lynx increased their use of alternative prey when faced with marginal environmental conditions; however, adults and their dependent juveniles maintained a narrow diet of snowshoe hare throughout the initial period of declining hare abundance. 2007), and thus, lynx originating from other regions would reflect these differences, adding noise to the system. But they are not fast runners, so they have to be sneaky when it comes to catching prey. Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) and snowshoe hare (Lepus americanus) populations undergo cyclic fluctuations in northern parts of their range, but cycles are either greatly attenuated or lost altogether in the southern boreal forest where prey diversity is higher. 2013). 1996). Its paws are unusually large and in very deep snow act like snowshoes. The variance explained by each model was summarized as the marginal and conditional R2, where marginal R2 considers variance explained by fixed effects only while conditional R2 reflects variance explained by both random and fixed effects (Nakagawa and Schielzeth 2013). 1998a), meaning that the influence of primary prey can be dampened during periods of food shortage. 1976; O'Donoghue et al. A lynx was photographed in 2007 along the Gibbon River, and another lynx was observed near Indian Creek Campground in the northwestern portion of Yellowstone during 2010. 1983; Slough and Mowat 1996). This research was made possible through cooperation from lynx trappers and regional Environment and Natural Resources (ENR) staff in Fort Providence. Stable isotope ratios and SEAc estimates of lynx grouped by environmental condition and age class are presented in Figure 2. Females are sexually mature at 21 months, males at 33 months. The Canada lynx and the bobcat live in North America. Knowing that the lynx cats are generally wild, when keeping them as domestic animals, the utmost care is expected to be given. Lynx are heavily dependent on snowshoe hares. Hares and white-tailed deer are the lynx's preferred prey animals and in Lapland the lynx also eats a lot of reindeer. Diet breadth estimates (SEAc) of cohorts during marginal years were juveniles = 0.59‰2, yearlings = 1.22‰2, subadults = 1.12‰2, and adults = 0.61‰2. R. Mulders and other Government of the Northwest Territories staff assisted with carcass processing, and H. Skowron prepared the samples for stable isotope analysis. In this way, prey flushed out by one individual is often caught by another in the line. Lynx, any of four species of short-tailed cats (family Felidae) found in the forests of Europe, Asia, and North America. 1996; Slough and Mowat 1996). Primary funding for carcass collections and their processing was provided for by the Government of the Northwest Territories Department of Environment and Natural Resources; analysis and write‐up was supported by a Strategic NSERC grant to D. L. Murray et al. Today, they’re kept for conservation purposes. Canadian lynx have been exploited for their fur since the seventeenth century. Ungulates are the preferred prey of cougars (Puma concolor) and, during summer, ungulates comprise the largest proportion of cougar diet for all segments of the population. Snowshoe hare abundance was estimated each year using fecal pellet counts (Krebs et al. 2004). In … Reliable detections of lynx continue to occur in surrounding National Forest System lands. This means that individuals with reduced ability to acquire scarce resources must use alternative prey, disperse, or die. Many scientists think that thousands of years ago the Canadian lynx migrated to North America from Asia, probably crossing the land bridge between the two continents at that time. Rodents, birds, caribou, carrion, deer and snowshoe hare is what the lynx eat. Care; When intending to keep a domestic lynx cat, the care given greatly determines the overall experience expected to have. On the other hand, if alternative prey is especially difficult for consumers to capture, then diet switching may be restricted to effective or experienced hunters (i.e., adults). 0115837). They are non migratory, but do roam. The Canada lynx is a close evolutionary relative of the bobcat, another small wild cat species native to North America. To examine annual variability in lynx diets, we measured stable isotope ratios of lynx harvested by fur trappers within 100 km of Fort Providence, Northwest Territories, Canada (61.35 N, 117.65 W). Canada lynx prey mostly on snowshoe hare. When hares cannot be found, the lynx will prey on small mammals, birds and sometimes even large animals like caribou. The females are smaller than the males. Canadian lynxes have a polygynous mating system. Rodents, birds, caribou, carrion, deer and snowshoe hare is what the lynx eat. Good years include data collected winter of 1999 and 2000, represented by higher snowshoe hare densities (mean local hare densities: 0.53 and 0.90 hares/ha, respectively) and high lynx recruitment (mean recruitment rate: 1.58 and 1.87 juveniles/adult, respectively). Found in the boreal forest across Canada from Newfoundland to the Yukon Territory. At each site 4–6 transects with 70–100 plots, each (5.08 × 305 cm, spaced at 25 m intervals; see Poole 1989) were surveyed. The snowshoe hare makes up the majority of the Canadian lynx diet, and every 10 years or so when the hare population collapses, the lynx population follows suit. Care; When intending to keep a domestic lynx cat, the care given greatly determines the overall experience expected to have. The lynx’s summer diet is more varied than the winter diet. Lynx also eat red squirrel, other small mammals and some birds, including grouse. Lynx canadensis It usually hunts at night and stalks its prey before pouncing on it. 3). Alternatively, if prey switching occurs among individuals who are unable to effectively capture primary prey at low densities, then young, free‐living animals should have broader diets during primary prey shortages. Canada lynx live in forested areas and make their dens underneath fallen trees, tree stumps, rock ledges or thick bushes. These big feet are like snowshoes, enabling them to hunt effectively in deep snow. All analyses were conducted using the “lme4” (Bates et al. Trending posts and videos related to Canada Lynx Diet! Sample stable isotope ratios (δ13C and δ15N) were measured on a continuous flow isotope ratio mass spectrometer at the University of Central Florida. 2000). Declining hare densities spur demographic changes in lynx, but it is unclear whether a corresponding increase in diet breadth occurs: (1) broadly across a lynx population; (2) only among individuals who are able to effectively switch to alternative prey; or (3) only among individuals who cannot capture sufficient primary prey. If lynx do not finish their food in one sitting they will save or store it in a safe spot. It also eats birds, meadow voles, carrion, and sometimes larger animals like deer and caribou. 2007), further contributing to noise. Archived data used in this manuscript will be made available through Dryad. It typically occurs in dense boreal forests, though it is sometimes found in rocky areas and open forests. A hungry lynx will devour an entire hare in one meal. Red squirrel stable isotope ratios are variable between seasons, years, and among individuals depending on conifer masting events, composition of food caches, and use of animal protein (Roth et al. Lynx management and research in the NWT, 1988–1989, Characteristics of an unharvested lynx population during a snowshoe hare decline, Dispersal patterns of lynx in the Northwest Territories, R: a language and environment for statistical computing, Geographical gradients in diet affect population dynamics of Canada lynx, Lynx population dynamics in an untrapped refugium, Intraspecific competition drives increased resource use diversity within a natural population, A comparison of bootstrap approaches for estimating uncertainty of parameters in linear mixed‐effects models, Behavioural responses to human‐induced environmental change, Endangered and threatened wildlife and plants; determination of threatened status for the contiguous U.S. distinct population segment of the Canada lynx and related rule; final rule, Morphological variation and width of ecological niche, Food habits of the lynx in Alberta and the Mackenzie District, NWT, Population‐level consequences of polymorphism, plasticity and randomized phenotype switching: a review of predictions. No other predator has such a strong cyclic prey base to which it has become uniquely adapted – both behaviorally and physiologically. Canada lynx. The difference between a model's AIC value and the minimum AIC of the model (ΔAIC) provides a measure of Kulback–Leibler information loss relative to competing models and thus a measure of each model's plausibility relative to others in the set (Burnham and Anderson 2002, p. 70). Lynx cycles have been attributed ultimately to changes in snowshoe hare density (Krebs et al. 2007; appendix D). Coefficients for all models were then recalculated using restricted maximum likelihood (REML) to improve estimation of random effects and balance unequal variance among predictors (Bolker et al. 1997). Peak snowshoe hare density was roughly fivefold less than historic peaks in snowshoe hare abundance for Fort Providence (7–9 hares/ha, Poole 1994; 5.3–6.2 hares/ha, Poole 1997). After about five weeks, the kittens leave the den, and they begin hunting between seven and nine months old. As such, year of collection (Y) was included in all models as a random effect to account for unmeasured variation in prey community stable isotope ratios. The age class effect provides a more precise definition for the degree of dietary flexibility exhibited by a specialist consumer, and implies a link between diet, survivorship, and population dynamics. Our previous work (Roth et al. Thus, there remains a need to determine more fully if use of alternative prey by young lynx is a successful strategy for surviving through periods of hare scarcity. Together, δ13C and δ15N provide a two‐dimensional measure of diet and thus are ideally modeled together using MANOVA; however, lack of homogeneity of variance–covariance and weak linear association between response variables raised concerns against use of MANOVA for these data. The Canada lynx tends to be nocturnal like its primary prey, the snowshoe hare. ) is not explained by diet They are non migratory, but do roam. If prey switching incurred immediate benefits to lynx, then all segments should be equally likely to expand their diet breadth in immediate response to their environment; yet, our data only provide evidence for those animals that are naïve hunters spending their first winters as independent, free‐ranging individuals. 2015). We examined lynx diet breadth variability among cohorts from a harvested population near Fort Providence, Northwest Territories, Canada. Weight of Canada Lynx: The weight of these species varies from 8 to 11 kg. Intercepts were allowed to vary by year of collection (random effect) to control for potential differences of prey community stable isotope ratios between winters. We examined lynx diet breadth variability among cohorts from a harvested population near Fort Providence, Northwest Territories, Canada. It also eats birds, meadow voles, carrion and sometimes larger animals like deer … When the Snowshoe Hare species spikes, so does the Canada lynx’s. Learn more. Nevertheless, activity may be observed during daytime. Model fit improved considerably with addition of random effects ( = 0.37 and = 0.77). Hair of snowshoe hare and red squirrel was collected in 2001 to provide estimates of prey stable isotope ratios in the study area (see Roth et al. The females will only mate during each season with one male, but the males may mate with a number of females. Records of Canada lynx populations have been kept since the 1730s, thanks to the Hudson’s Bay Company. Population‐level diet responses are reflected in mean stable isotope ratios. The lynx’s summer diet is more varied than the winter diet. Lynx like forests with many different sized trees and a thick understory (the plant life on the forest floor). This type of habitat is also ideal for their preferred prey species—the snowshoe hare. 2008, Walpole et al. The Canada lynx’s coat differentiates them from other lynx species. For Lynxes living further south, they will hunt anything from mice, voles, grouses, and ptarmigans to red squirrels and small birds. Lynx have acute hearing, and their large, furry paws act as snowshoes, allowing the cats to track and capture the swift snowshoe hares in deep snow. Linear mixed models compared to identify predictors of mean Canada lynx population diet reflected in stable isotope ratios for δ 13 C and δ 15 N (n = 505). The Canada Lynx population is tied closely to the density of snowshoe hares in the area. A 30-pound lynx has larger feet than a mountain lion of 200 pounds. Tracks of an individual were verified near the Northeast Entrance in 2014. Size of Canada Lynx: The length of the body varies between 31 – 41 inches while that of the tail varies in between 10 – 15 cm. Sometimes they consume larger animals which have died from other causes. They prefer 20- to 30-year-old mixed wood forests of spruce, fir, aspen, and birch. But even in summer hares remain the main prey, supplemented by grouse, voles, mice, squirrels, foxes and young ungulates (Dall’s sheep, mule deer and caribou). These sleek predators will hunt a wide variety of animals, depending on prey availability. We considered subadults separately because the age of first reproduction increases when snowshoe hare are scarce (Parker et al. Adult Canada lynx are solitary hunters, although a mother and her young often hunt together. Our results imply that select cohorts of specialist carnivores can exhibit high dietary plasticity in response to changes in primary prey abundance, prompting the need to determine whether increased diet breadth in young lynx is a successful strategy for surviving through periods of snowshoe hare scarcity. Males are slightly bigger than females and there is not much geographic variation in size. Stable isotope ratios of snowshoe hares (n = 6, δ13C = −26.28 ± 0.93‰ SD, δ15N = 3.25 ± 1.44‰ SD) and red squirrels (n = 6, δ13C = −20.70 ± 0.53‰ SD, δ15N = 9.91 ± 3.21‰ SD) collected in 2001 were distinct and encompassed the range in stable isotope ratios observed for lynx. The sex ratio of sampled lynx was 58.4% male and the age distribution of the population (corrected for harvest bias) fluctuated between years (Table 1). The Canada lynx often stores leftover kill by covering it with snow. They enjoy the cold weather by playing outside or lying in the snow. They live in existing features such as a fallen log. This will cause a chain reaction where everything the hare eats will become under populated, or even extinct. In contrast, supported models for δ13C included the null, suggesting that hypothesized predictors had no measurable effect on lynx stable carbon ratios. 1983; Slough and Mowat 1996). Canadian lynx eat many different things. In this way, dietary plasticity may buffer fluctuations in population size by reducing mortality and enabling continued reproduction under marginal conditions; thus, it is essential to measure both population‐wide and demographic responses to limiting resources in order to understand the impacts of prey limitation on population dynamics (Wennersten and Forsman 2012). Size of Canada Lynx: The length of the body varies between 31 – 41 inches while that of the tail varies in between 10 – 15 cm. Prey switching is a form of behavioral plasticity that allows rapid responses to environmental change, yet it is not always clear whether switching is beneficial or not (Tuomainen and Candolin 2011). They do not build dens. He eats a mixture of raw chicken meat, hearts, and giblets. Johnson et al. This critical point of predicted dietary niche dynamics is not likely to coincide with the lowest hare density value but rather follow a time lag, and thus, a linear model of diet and hare density was not considered appropriate. Food limitation is a critical environmental factor shaping the dynamics of consumers, and organisms may expand their dietary breadth to contend with limited food availability (Van Valen 1965). Canada lynx look similar to bobcats, but there are some distinguishing features: bobcats have shorter tufts on their ears, the tip of their tail is black on top and white underneath, and bobcats have shorter legs and smaller feet than lynx. Records of Canada lynx populations have been kept since the 1730s, thanks to the Hudson’s Bay Company. Fit of the global model for δ13C satisfied the assumptions of normality and homogeneity of variance. Model selection suggests that all hypothesized parameters were potentially important predictors of mean δ15N, but had little effect on mean δ13C (Table 2). They have also been known to eat a few different species of deer when presented with the opportunity, namely sick or young animals. He eats a mixture of raw chicken meat, hearts, and giblets. Food. Linear mixed models allow for unequal variance structures but are not yet accessible for multiple response variables. As muscle tissue has a turnover rate of approximately 1–3 months (Boecklen et al. and a National Science Foundation grant to J. D. Roth (DBI No. Both species are strongly associated with high-elevation forests that have cold, snowy winters. Canada lynx diet. More diverse individual diets within a demographic group are characterized by greater spread in stable isotope ratios and thus a larger standard ellipse. 2. In summer the lynx’s diet is more varied. Lynx recruitment during a snowshoe hare population peak and decline in southwest Yukon, Ecology of lynx in northern Canada and Alaska, A geographic analysis of snowshoe hare population demography, Assessment of potential bias with snowshoe hare fecal pellet‐plot counts, Assessment of Canada lynx research and conservation needs in the southern range: another kick at the cat, A general and simple method for obtaining, Numerical responses of coyotes and lynx to the snowshoe hare cycle, Behavioural responses of coyotes and lynx to the snowshoe hare cycle, Functional responses of coyotes and lynx to the snowshoe hare cycle, Package ‘siar’: stable isotope analysis in R, Cannibalism and competition in Eurasian perch: population dynamics of an ontogenetic omnivore. During winter in the boreal forest, red squirrel (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus) comprise the greatest available alternative resource for lynx (Mowat et al. and you may need to create a new Wiley Online Library account. Their forelimbs are shorter than their hind limbs, giving them a distinctive silhouette. If intending to keep a domestic lynx cat, such as a bobcat or a Canadian lynx, a proper diet is required for implementation. Canada lynx are found in the high elevations and mountainous regions of northern United States and Canada. This hunting method can work quite well and it may be important for educating the young about hunting technique. We found that lynx cohorts responded differently to hare population change, with yearling animals having broader diets at low hare densities, while adults and dependent juveniles maintained a constant diet through the initial decline in hare density. Despite that conclusion, FWS now considers the species recovered, though it has never formally delisted Canada lynx. The Canadian lynx is a very vocal animal, producing cat-like meows, hisses and purrs. Random intercepts for Model 1 were 1998 = 4.33, 1999 = 4.57, 2000 = 4.54, and 2001 = 4.77. The global split plot model of diet breadth fit better than simpler variations (Table 4). Except during the breeding season in winter, adults generally avoid each other. 2010). At the population level, our data support a trade‐off of investing in reproduction when resources are abundant and prioritizing survival when resources are limiting. 2000) in older multi-layered stands (Ruediger et al. The Canada lynx can climb trees and often waits on a branch for passing prey. 2007), but it remains unclear whether variability in diet breadth is pervasive across a population, or whether certain individuals within select cohorts are more likely to switch prey. Lynx in the core range exhibit population cycles following 1–2 years behind that of their preferred prey, snowshoe hare (Lepus americanus), which cycle in abundance every 9–10 years (Krebs et al. Canadian lynxes appear to be territorial and live solitary lives. Significant numbers of deaths are also due to rabies and distemper. Hypotheses included an interaction between environmental condition (EC ) and age class (A ), their main effects, and sex (S ) as fixed effects. Future studies addressing such complexities will be critical to conservation and harvest management planning for lynx as well as for other carnivores that also demonstrate spatiotemporal variability in prey choice and diet breadth. Adult Canada lynx are solitary hunters, although a mother and her young often hunt together. Reliable detections of lynx continue to occur in surrounding National Forest System lands. Information regarding the diet of Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) at the southernmost extent of its range is critical for managing the species under current and predicted climate conditions.Therefore, from 1999–2009, we investigated winter diet and hunting strategies of Canada lynx in Colorado, USA by tracking individuals in the snow to identify sites where lynx encountered and killed prey. The Canada lynx often stores leftover kill by covering it with snow. Age‐structured differences in isotopic niche breadth (SEA) of lynx during marginal environmental conditions when snowshoe hare densities and lynx recruitment were low (red), and during good environmental conditions when snowshoe hare densities and lynx recruitment were high (black) for A) juvenile lynx, B) yearling lynx, C) subadult lynx, and D) adult lynx. Working off-campus? Throughout the territory, lynx and snowshoe hare populations undergo periodic 10‐year cycles in abundance (Murray et al. Both snowshoe hare and red squirrel molt in autumn, so hair stable isotope ratios reflect prey during October–November of 2000 (coincident with lynx winter diet 2001). Our large annual sample permitted partitioning of the data into age classes without compromising the precision of our SEAc estimates. However, this species’ numbers are stable and currently it is classified as Least Concern (LC) on the IUCN Red List. Individual‐level responses are reflected in the variability among individual stable isotope ratios, or diet breadth of a demographic group. The Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) or Canadian lynx is a North American mammal of the cat family, Felidae.With the recognised subspecies, it ranges across Canada and into Alaska as well as some parts of the northern United States.. With a dense silvery-brown coat, ruffed face and tufted ears, the Canada lynx resembles the other species of the mid-sized Lynx genus. Error bars represent the 95% confidence interval of a basic bootstrap on parameter estimates. They leave their mother at about the age of ten months, when the next breeding season starts. Canadian lynxes are important in controlling their prey populations. 2000) and could strongly influence stable isotope ratios measured in lynx. Lynx are predators and their diet is dependent on their habitat and the availability of prey. Diet - We stop at nothing to provide our Canadian lynx with an enriching diet that provides all the nutrition he needs. Lynx populations south of the Canadian border were probably never as abundant or dense as the more northern populations. Canadian lynxes keep strictly to a carnivorous diet, snowshoe hares being their primary prey. To prepare samples for stable isotope analysis, muscle tissue was freeze dried and powdered with a mortar and pestle. As our study only captures the beginning of the cyclic decline we cannot speak to dietary plasticity of the population during cyclic lows when recruitment has collapsed and adults predominate. 8. Weight of Canada Lynx: The weight of these species varies from 8 to 11 kg. Subadult lynx show a tendency toward niche expansion which may reflect differences in speed of acquisition of hunting skills among developing lynx. The study region is within the southern portion of the Taiga Plains ecological region (Ecosystem Classification Group 2007), and is mostly flat with large lakes and stands of coniferous and mixed boreal forest. Diet of Canada Lynx in Minnesota Estimated from Scat Analysis Kayla Hanson1,2 Ron Moen1 1Center for Water and Environment Natural Resources Research Institute University of Minnesota Duluth 5013 Miller Trunk Highway Duluth, MN 55811-1442 2Department of Biology University of Minnesota Duluth James I. Swenson Science Building 1035 Kirby Drive Duluth, MN 55812-3004 NRRI Technical Report No. Parameter estimates of a split plot linear mixed‐effects model describing variation in standard ellipse area (SEAc) estimates of lynx diet breadth by environmental condition, age class, an interaction of environmental condition and age class, and random intercepts for year of collection. Their distribution mirrors that of its main prey, the snowshoe hare. Number of times cited according to CrossRef: Latitudinal gradient in cortisol concentrations in Canada lynx ( 2000, Koehler et al. Canada Lynx are found primarily in boreal forests, and their main prey species, the Snowshoe Hare (Lepus americanus), depends largely on patches of successional growth (Buskirk et al. A Canada Lynx's home range may range from 10 to 243 square kilometers depending on population size, food, and other variables. Harvested lynx samples underestimate the number of kits (36%) and individuals ≥2 years old (4%) while overestimating the number of yearlings (40%) (Slough and Mowat 1996). The cumulative evidence suggests that greater availability of snowshoe hare coincides with greater consumption of hares by all segments of the population and enables increased recruitment to the population. Forelimbs are shorter than their hind limbs, giving it a stooped appearance weeks, the lynx ’ s Company. 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