A study that specifically examines and compares cases of populism across Asia would be an important contribution. Only countries with a score of at least 6—the traditional cutoff for measuring democracy—on the Polity IV index are included. Elevating these policy questions to crisis involves a process Brubaker terms antagonistic repoliticisation: “the claim to reassert democratic political control over domains of life that are seen, plausibly enough, as having been depoliticized and de-democratized, that is, removed from the realm of democratic decision-making”.30Brubaker, “Why Populism?”. 425 (October 2007): 611–637. Italy's Matteo Salvini - leader of the League - is a key figure in Europe's nationalist scene, … Public Administration Sorry, an error occured during your newsletter subscription. This general will of the people, populists argue, is not represented by the cartel of self-serving establishment elites who guard status quo politics. “¡Chávez es Pueblo! Human rights exist to protect people from government abuse and neglect. Hellmann, Olli. Indeed, part of populism’s continued relevance over time and across countries is its changeability across contexts.16Cas Mudde and Cristóbal Rovira Kaltwasser, “Exclusionary vs Inclusionary Populism: Comparing Contemporary Europe and Latin America”, Government and Opposition 48, no. Caitlin Andrews-Lee, “The Revival of Charisma: Experimental Evidence from Argentina and Venezuela”, Comparative Political Studies, forthcoming. Populist parties are often depicted as inconsistent, unprepared, unfit, and unpredictable. Populism in Central and Eastern Europe: FATIGUE and POPREBEL. Hadiz, Vedi, and Richard Robison. ... and now the current pandemic, as justifications to further consolidate his power. Far-right presidential candidate Jair Bolsonaro swept the October 2018 election. These types of populism are distinguished by how political elites use populist discourse to sow divisions (see table 1). ‘Journalism is Threatened by Populist Governments, the Corporate World’ Attendees gather for a photo at the World Journalists Conference held in Seoul, Korea in March 2019. as a slogan.20“¡Chávez es Pueblo! Even though they do not win 100 per cent of the votes, they claim 100 per cent of the votes of the true, moral people—the only members of the political community that they characterise as legitimate. Larmer, Miles and Alastair Fraser. In addition, populist parties are part of coalitions in seven more countries: Norway, Finland, Switzerland, Austria, Lithuania, Bulgaria, and Slovakia. Nor has socio-economic populism been particularly successful in the countries hardest hit by the crisis. The corrupt elites can include big businesses, capital owners, state elites, and foreign forces and international institutions that prop up an international capitalist system. The world’s economic elite gathers in Davos, while the UK is still clouded in Brexit uncertainty and populist authoritarians rise in a digital age. In Latin America, Chávez styled himself as the contemporary incarnation of the revolutionary Simón Bolívar. Thus, a global accounting of populists in power is by no means an accounting of bad leaders. The fundamental crisis, then, is one of political representation: by taking important policy issues off the table, elites fail to represent the people. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2017. Buckingham: Open University Press, 2000. It finds that: Watershed political events in recent years—the election of President Donald Trump in the United States (US), the Brexit vote, the electoral success of Italy’s Five Star Movement, Brazil’s sudden lurch to the right with the election of President Jair Bolsonaro, the doubling of support for populist parties across Europe—have brought the word “populism” out of the annals of academic journals and into the headlines.1Martin Eiermann, Yascha Mounk and Limor Gultchin, European Populism: Trends, Threats, and Future Prospects, Tony Blair Institute for Global Change, 29 December 2017, https://institute.global/insight/renewing-centre/european-populism-trends-threats-and-future-prospects. In cultural populism, establishment elites are implicated primarily through their role in enabling too much cultural openness; in socio-economic populism, establishment elites are implicated mainly through their role in empowering economic elite and foreign interests. This project aims to build a systematic understanding of how populists govern, including how they reshape state institutions, how they may or may not erode the quality of liberal democracy, and the economic policies that they implement. This variant of populism has often been wedded to an economic affiliation with market liberalism. Asia: 40 Per Cent of Asia’s Population Governed by Populists. First, we identified the following 66 leading academic journals in political science, sociology and area studies that commonly publish articles on populism, as well as the new Oxford Handbook of Populism: Administrative Science Quarterly You have successfully subscribed. Western European Politics Roberts, Kenneth. With neoliberal economic policies out of favour and a commodity boom filling government coffers with new-found resources, a new populist agenda emphasised the working class against foreign economic interests, including against foreign investors and international financial institutions. “Varieties of populism in a changing global context: the divergent paths of Erdogan and Kirchnerismo.” Comparative Politics 47, no. Outsider status is targeted primarily at elites. From these sources, we queried all articles containing the keyword “populist” or “populism” in their title or abstract and scanned the texts using natural language processing technology that can identify names. What distinguishes this from anti-establishment populism in other regions is that this is a more specific case against a fairly well-defined group, as compared with populists in other regions who may include a bigger and more amorphous group of outsiders.58Olli Hellmann, “Populism in East Asia”, in The Oxford Handbook of Populism, ed. “Anti-system parties revisited: Concept formation and guidelines for empirical research.” Government and Opposition 53, no. 13-0004, Harvard University, 2013. They are in government in 11 European countries. Only with a clear and systematic understanding of the phenomenon can political leaders begin to offer meaningful and credible alternatives to populism. At first, these policies received widespread popular support, reaching 72–77 per cent approval in Argentina and 50–60 per cent approval in Peru, as inflation in Argentina fell from 3,079 per cent in 1989 to 8 per cent in 1994 and in Peru from 7,650 per cent in 1990 to under 40 per cent in 1993.56Weyland, “Neoliberal Populism in Latin America and Eastern Europe”, 396; Carlos de la Torre, “Populism in Latin America”, in The Oxford Handbook of Populism, ed. Right-wing populist and nationalist governments are in power in Russia, Turkey, India, Israel, Hungary, Poland, and the United States, and they share power with left-wing populists in Italy. For example, populism advocates overturning the political establishment but lacks a ready answer for what should replace it. It is easy to see, then, how populism can come into conflict with liberal democracy. Second, from this potential list, we carefully read each source to ensure that we included only those with substantive discussion of why the leader in question qualified as populist. The election of US President Trump has raised the concern that populist governments may not only represent a challenge for liberal constitution-alism at the national level 2 but also contribute to a broader crisis of international law. Goemans, Kristian Skrede Gleditsch and Giacomo Chiozza, “Introducing Archigos: A Data Set of Political Leaders”, Journal of Peace Research 46, no. Yet, any effort that did not acknowledge significant difficulty and uncertainty in such an endeavour would be insincere. Aslandis, Paris, and Cristóbal Rovira Kaltwasser. Cristóbal Rovira Kaltwasser, Paul Taggart, Paulina Ochoa Espejo and Pierre Ostiguy (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2017). African Journal of Political Science “Are populist parties fostering women’s political representation in Poland? Specifically, we used the Archigos database of political leaders, which identifies the effective leader of every country in every year going back to 1875. Despite the fact that parliamentary systems may be more resilient to the rise of populist parties to executive office than presidential systems are, the increasing popularity of populist parties across Europe means that they will factor more and more into coalition politics. Former Argentine Presidents Néstor Kirchner and Cristina Fernández de Kirchner claim to be the modern Juan and Eva Perón, carrying out the Peronist legacy and leading the Peronist party. 3 (2016): 26–50. Despite these difficulties, recent scholarship on populism has made considerable progress in clearly identifying features of populism that can be compared across a wide variety of countries and contexts. Weyland, “Neoliberal Populism in Latin America and Eastern Europe”, 396; Carlos de la Torre, “Populism in Latin America”, in The Oxford Handbook of Populism, ed. Annual Review of Sociology American Journal of Sociology Although the prevalence of anti-establishment populism has remained fairly constant over time, its nature has changed quite a bit since the 1990s. S1 (2017): S57–S84. There are three main strategies that populists use to stoke this insider-outsider division: Identifying With the True People Through Political Style. International Studies Quarterly The key is that populists attack and delegitimise any possible opposition to their rule. This appendix details how we developed the “Populists in Power: 1990–2018” database. “Understanding the ‘Zuma tsunami’.” Review of African Political Economy 36, no. Serra, Gilles. Hall, “The Politics of Social Status: Economic and Cultural Roots of the Populist Right”, British Journal of Sociology 68, no. While parliamentary systems tend to give precedence to political parties, presidential systems favour individual leaders. The charisma of populist leaders helped generate public support for tough economic reforms. 1 (2009): 29–48; Moffitt, The Global Rise of Populism, chapter 3. Ruth, Saskia Pauline. This type of populism could include everything from anti-immigrant manifestations in Europe and North America to Islamic populism in Turkey and Indonesia. Wow in the World StoryCorps ... Europe's Populist Leaders Have A Hard Time Accepting Trump Loss ... says the increasingly authoritarian governments … Even if populist parties can win the largest share of seats, they often have to form a coalition government, which requires finding other parties willing to ally with them. A Bloomberg analysis of decades of election results across 22 European countries reveals that support for populist radical-right parties is higher than it’s been at any time over the past 30 years. The term “populism” was first used to describe specific 19th-century political movements. Diani, Mario. Reflecting the fact that almost all studies of populism have focused on Europe and Latin America, even the definition of populism does not easily suit the Asian context, and it is difficult to neatly classify the cases into the types of populism identified in other parts of the world. correct political outcomes”—that is, those outcomes that favour the populist.36Müller, What Is Populism?, 61. How will this trend shape the politics, economics and societies of the future? Rather, the rise of socio-economic populism preceded the financial crisis and was concentrated primarily in countries doing relatively well economically, especially in Latin America. If one term can describe such a broad set of leaders, does it mean anything at all? The solutions they promise, however, are fantasies, characterised by vague ideas and unfulfillable promises. Comparative Political Studies It certainly feels that way: Starting in the mid-2010s, democracies all over the world have turned toward the right, electing representatives that stand in stark contrast to those that pushed for globalization and international cooperation two decades earlier. Populism can also arise in contexts of profound economic failures, where economic systems do require disruptive transformation to deliver broad-based growth. In Argentina, centrist Mauricio Macri defeated Cristina Kirchner’s hand-picked successor in 2015. The next chapter puts the definition of populism into practice. All rights reserved. Yet, the populist agenda of stoking anger with no policy solutions may begin to lose any remaining popular appeal as citizens continue to suffer a lack of basic needs under the Maduro regime. Prime minister of Ukraine in 2005 and again from 2007 to 2010, she clearly exhibited a populist style, yet the prime minister is not considered the political leader in Ukraine’s semi-presidential system. Journal of European Public Policy Ginsborg, Paul. Political Research Quarterly Jones, Erik, and Matthias Matthjis. Once populists have defined a national crisis, these intermediary institutions become obstacles that stand in the way of solving the crisis, things to be bulldozed over in the name of getting things done.31Moffitt, The Global Rise of Populism, 206. This is what makes populism fundamentally anti-pluralist. If moderate parties across the centre-right and centre-left join together to form cordons sanitaires to keep populists out of power, this looks to the supporters of populist parties like an establishment conspiracy to keep them out of power at all costs, potentially fanning the flames of populist appeal. From there, populists attribute a singular common good to the people: a policy goal that cannot be debated based on evidence but that derives from the common sense of the people.19For further discussion, see Müller, What is Populism?, 25–32. What is more, populists dramatise social divisions as threats to the nation and elevate them to a matter of national urgency. Mudde contrasted populism with pluralism, which accepts the legitimacy of many different groups in society. Are all those who criticise the status quo populists? 11 (2011): 1447–1473. For the most part, populism in this region manifests itself as cultural populism, with parties like Fidesz in Hungary and Law and Justice in Poland peddling an exclusionary form of nationalism. Security Studies This article conceptualises populist policy making by theoretically addressing the substantive and discursive components of populist policies and the decision-making processes of populist governments. Rather, they exploit and stoke social cleavages that have often been simmering under the surface of politics for many years. 4 (2017). Populist politicians such as Trump, Bolsonaro, Duterte and Modi merely serve to exacerbate the deterioration of trust in government. Common to many of the crises identified by populists is a sense that the political elites across all mainstream political parties have conspired to depoliticise an important policy question that should be subject to public scrutiny. According to the two combined data sets used by International IDEA to measure populism, the number of governments with populist political actors in power has nearly doubled in the last 15 years (see Figure 1), and more Hewison, Kevin. Latin American Politics and Society Many socio-economic populists have been remarkably resilient in holding power. 2 (2018): 185–196. Cristóbal Rovira Kaltwasser, Paul Taggart, Paulina Ochoa Espejo and Pierre Ostiguy (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2017). Populists may construct different types of ‘us vs. them’ conflicts depending on the political context. 2 (January 2006): 127. By contrast, populism’s appeal is often based on real concerns about the failure of mainstream parties to address issues that citizens are worried about and the failure of institutions to deliver policy outcomes that matter to citizens. “The New Populism, Presidentialism, and Market-Orientated Reform in Spanish South America.” Government and Opposition 33, no. Whereas “thick ideologies” like communism have a vision for how politics, the economy and society should be organised, populism does not. Measures need to be taken to proactively address populist sentiment when reviewing the IHR (2005) effectiveness in the COVID-19 pandemic. In Latin America, there was Venezuela's late President Chávez. The American president has not shied away from incendiary comments and under his presidency hate crimes are on the rise. In 2004, Mudde set out a definition of populism that laid the groundwork for careful, broad analysis on the topic.15Cas Mudde, “The Populist Zeitgeist”, Government and Opposition 39, no. Social media has also become a powerful populist tool by enabling a direct connection between the people and their voice. Thompson, Mark. These are the core obsessions that drive our newsroom—defining topics of seismic importance to the global economy. Government and Opposition Journal of Politics Once populists have defined the people and outsiders (and how outsiders imperil the nation), they claim that nothing should constrain the will of the true people. In India, Prime Minister Narendra Modi has relied on nationalist and religious appeals to whip up popularity, while in the Philippines Rodrigo Duterte uses law-and-order rhetoric. governments solely formed by populist par-ties. Populist parties have tripled their vote in Europe over the past 20 years. The number and fiscal resources of socio-economic populists across Latin America reinforced their staying power: Chávez in particular played an active role in supporting other populists across the region, both rhetorically and economically. Inglehart, Ronald, and Pippa Norris. Populism is on the rise globally, with cultural populism gaining the most steam. Knight, Alan. 1 (March 1999): 12. As we argued in our recent report, the number of populist leaders in power at the beginning of 2020 was near an all-time high.Right-wing cultural populists like Donald Trump and Jair Bolsonaro are especially well-represented; they comprise 10 of the current 17 … Cas Mudde, “The Populist Radical Right: A Pathological Normalcy”, West European Politics 33, no. But for now at least, it is not. The sentiment is above average in Latin American countries, which have historically elected populist leaders – like the Perons and Kirchners in Argentina … 6 (December 1996): 1053–1069. In the United States, the movement began in the nineteenth century with the creation of the People's Party in 1892. For example, populist anti-immigration parties present national unity as an urgent crisis that must be addressed. across almost all regions of the world, as have the number of governments with political parties or leaders labelled as populists. Cristóbal Rovira Kaltwasser, Paul Taggart, Paulina Ochoa Espejo and Pierre Ostiguy (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2017); Paul Taggart, Populism (Birmingham: Open University Press, 2000). A Bloomberg analysis of decades of election results across 22 European countries reveals that support for populist radical-right parties is higher than it’s been at any time over the past 30 years. Below, we include the final list of references that we used to verify consensus on whether the leader or party in question employs populism as a political strategy. Cristóbal Rovira Kaltwasser, Paul Taggart, Paulina Ochoa Espejo and Pierre Ostiguy (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2017). To investigate these additional leaders, we often reached beyond the initial list of leading academic journals and books to other peer-reviewed specialist journals and case-specific academic books. To date, populist parties in Western, Southern and Northern Europe have been less numerous and less powerful than in other parts of the world.53Eiermann, Mounk and Gultchin, European Populism. Nonetheless, poor handling of the pandemic does not necessarily spell electoral danger for the “Class of 2016” populist leaders. “Neoliberalism and the transformation of populism in Latin America: the Peruvian case.” World Politics 48, no. To build this understanding across a wide range of social, economic and political contexts, a global accounting is needed of when and where populists have been in power. A comment on Kostadinova and Mikulska.” Party Politics 24, no. 8 (2012): 947–972. “Populism in the post-Soviet states.” In The Oxford Handbook of Populism, edited by Cristóbal Rovira Kaltwasser, Paul Taggart, Paulina Ochoa Espejo and Pierre Ostiguy, chapter 11. Yet, this independence also means that they can make decisions that run counter to popular opinion. The first was the agrarian movement in the US in the 1890s that eventually became the People’s Party. Tony Blair Institute, trading as Tony Blair Institute for Global Change, is a company limited by guarantee registered in England and Wales (registered company number: 10505963) whose registered office is One Bartholomew Close, London, EC1A 7BL. This report puts forward a simple definition of populism and relies on a wealth of academic and expert knowledge to identify cases of populism around the world, seeking to cover those cases on which there is the most consensus. If ‘undemocratic’ political institutions are to blame for the crisis in the first place, why should populists accept the constraints that those institutions impose to solve it? It combines elements of the left and the right, opposing large business and financial interests but also frequently being … Often, this means decrying political correctness (which populists associate with elites), eschewing expert knowledge and idealising the wisdom of common citizens.23Robert Barr, “Populists, Outsiders, and Anti-Establishment Politics”, Party Politics 15, no. More than a quarter of … Latin American Research Review By defining the people—and delegitimising the status of those outside this boundary—populists throw into question one of the most fundamental prerequisites of democracy itself: agreement on who can legitimately participate in politics. 4 (2016): 872–889; Saskia Pauline Ruth, “Populism and the Erosion of Horizontal Accountability in Latin America”, Political Studies, forthcoming. Hall, “The Politics of Social Status: Economic and Cultural Roots of the Populist Right”, British Journal of Sociology 68, no. Of course, to say that both Modi and Duterte are employing a strategy of cultural populism does not imply that they govern similarly. Outsiders can also include immigrants, refugees, racial or religious minorities and criminals. World Development Despite these difficulties, some key trends in populism across Asia can be drawn out. 5 (2017): 357–385. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2012. Political scientist Ben Stanley has argued that these two forms of populism have prevailed across Eastern and Central Europe and post-Soviet Eurasia.55For a thorough treatment of populism in Central and Eastern Europe, see Ben Stanley, “Populism in Central and Eastern Europe”, in The Oxford Handbook of Populism, ed. Populists, in turn, resist budget austerity and the discipline required to attract international investment. For further discussion, see Müller, What is Populism?, 25–32. Part of the appeal of populism in the region, he contends, stems from the fact that transitions to democracy in the region were elite-led projects. On the other hand, some populists seem to be delivering economic boosts; at the very least, markets are not yet reacting strongly to the populist age. More broadly, strongmen with populist agendas have become president -- including Rodrigo Duterte in the Philippines and Donald Trump in the United States. Testing the Influence of Populism on Democratic Quality in Latin America.” Political Studies 64, no.4 (2016): 872–889. Journal of European Integration Tarik Abou-Chadi, “Niche Party Success and Mainstream Party Policy Shifts—How Green and Radical Right Parties Differ in Their Impact”, British Journal of Political Science 46, no. This reflects the fact that status quo policies have changed dramatically over the past 30 years. 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