von post peat classification

1.6. However, for palaeoclimatic reconstruction, more detailed high-resolution sampling and laboratory analysis is desirable. 0000000930 00000 n 0000001671 00000 n xref This gives a reasonable assessment for rapid description of peat stratigraphy. 0000012951 00000 n The distribution of peat deposits is extensive. Table 1 shows 10 degrees of humification (H1 to H10) in the von Post classification [2]. For peat classification geo-botanical properties are broadly used and applied in classification methods. This elegantly simple test clearly describes the continuum found in the research areas, from a sponge-like catotelm with nearly unlimited hydraulic conductivity to impermeable black peat. 104 0 obj <> endobj H4 Slightly decomposed peat which, when squeezed, releases very muddy dark water. The cation exchange capacity (CEC) was 70 meq/100g Agricultural Research and Practice in the Outer Hebrides. The von Post scale is simple to use: a handful of wet soil (small enough to cover with the fingers of one hand) is squeezed very hard, until as much as possible has extruded through the fingers. by 76-mm long, prepared for triaxial testing. The Radforth system of classification was developed for highly organic muskegs in Canada. Consent of copyright owner required for any other use. Canadian System of Soil Classification, 3rd edition ; OR; Fibrisol (F) Soils of this great group are composed largely of relatively undecomposed fibric organic material. 0000007283 00000 n In this research, various ratios of mix design for binders (OPC and MgO) and fillers (spent garnet and sand) were studied. Keywords: geotechnical classification, peats, organic soils, peat inventory, muskeg, engineering behavior, aging of degradable soils. The von Post classification is based on the visual inspection of extracted soil solutions and plant residues, and is therefore particularly useful in the field. Classification based on Von Post scale matched those of H6, a common value obtained for peat in Borneo of Sabah region. Von Post Humification Scale This scale was devised by Lennart von Post during his work on the 1926 Soil Survey of Sweden for measurement of degree of decomposition of dead plant matter such as Sphagnum moss. Abstract. None Insignificant Very siight Slight Mod&rate Modcratcly strong Strong Very strong Nearly cornpEe te Complete Easily i&n! 3.3. The von Post classification test was done at the sampling site on peat. These systems are supplemented with routine geotechnical tests yielding numerical values for classification purposes. surface of the peat in areas that have a proven depth of greater than 0.5m. FHWA/IN/JTRP-2008/2 Final Report CLASSIFICATION OF ORGANIC SOILS Pao-Tsung Huang Mital Patel Maria Caterina Santagata Antonio Bobet September 2009 0000008013 00000 n Peat soil and binders (70:30) were inserted into a PVC pipe with the diameter of 50 mm and length of 200 mm. endstream endobj 105 0 obj<>/Metadata 5 0 R/PieceInfo<>>>/Pages 4 0 R/PageLayout/OneColumn/StructTreeRoot 7 0 R/Type/Catalog/LastModified(D:20070926181800)/PageLabels 2 0 R>> endobj 106 0 obj<>/Font<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text]/ExtGState<>>>/Type/Page>> endobj 107 0 obj<> endobj 108 0 obj<> endobj 109 0 obj[/ICCBased 119 0 R] endobj 110 0 obj<>stream In the research areas, desirable plants (forage grasses) grew most strongly in areas with von Post scores between 7 and 9. In the field these three stages are classified using the von Post scale of decomposition. 0000002091 00000 n In organic soils and peats, the degree of decomposition is usually assessed by using von Post’s scale. It showed strong statistical relationships with soil depth, colour, K, pH, ash, hydrology, and smell, emphasizing its predictive value as a multi-variate indicator for field analysis. the von Post classification system that are determined based on the appearance of peat water that is extruded when the soil is squeezed in the hand. According to von Post classification, peat soil can be classified as H3. It was originally devised to aid the development of an inventory of peat … 0 Root fibres, wood residues and degree of moisture are also indicated. hydric 3: The Von Post Scale of Humification 17 Table 2. A more summarized version of von Post classification guideline that is also in part proposed by Malaysian soil classification systems for engineering purposes is shown on Table 2. xÚb``b``é` ı^TÀÄ, lH‚BPÌÀ ÂÀ#8±AÖ€Á¤ÙÁF8ÏFi›ò#O}./Ş€ó¼4!ª™¬: 4ƒ320˜ˆBh¶b¸™@ó}R!¢Œ– �o " The von Post humification test (von Post classification system) involves squeezing the peat and the material that is extruded between the fingers, examining the material, and classifying the soil as belonging to one of ten (H1-H10) humification or decomposition categories. https://www.roadex.org/e-learning/lessons/roads-on-peat/peat 0000013450 00000 n Fibric material is usually classified on the von Post scale of decomposition as classes 1-4. The Von Post classification of each peat core describes the level of decomposition of peat at various core depths, this ranged from H2 Very Weakly Decomposed to H8 Very Strongly Decomposed. This scale is based on factors such as botanical composition, degree of humification, and the color of peat water after squeezing. The three decomposition stages are assigned Of, Om, or Oh designations depending on the degree of decomposition of the organic material. There is inevitably some overlap between these systems. The change in depth between fibrous and amorphous catotelmic peat is estimated at 1.0m, based on Von Post classification (as reported in Technical Appendix A10.2) data for continuous peat core data. Some of the peat classification systems rely on biologic descriptions of plant constituents. The Von Post classification of each peat core describes the level of decomposition of peat at various core depths, this ranged from H2 Very Weakly Decomposed to H8 Very Strongly Decomposed. H‰”U[o›0~çWœG�Ç6æ&U•Ú4[3­)l/í(q6 0000009244 00000 n This is a conservative estimate, with peat core samples unable to provide a specific boundary. This surface peat zone would include vegetated peat turves. EPA Export 25-07-2013:16:15:27. 0000005371 00000 n 0000008623 00000 n humisol – a type of organic soil with advanced decomposition of organic materials (i.e. This is because this method can directly obtain result of the level of humification on site based on the squeezing of peat soil sample. Fibrisols occur extensively in Canada, particularly in peat deposits dominated by sphagnum mosses. Geotechnics, 1994) for a new classification extends von Post with only organic content, but is more detailed in naming the various botanic and mineral constituents. The degree of decomposition is commonly assessed using the 10 classes of humification of the von Post scale (von Post, 1922) where H1 refers to the least, H10 the most decomposed peat. Landva and Rochelle (1983) speak of a Radforth peat when the mineral content is very low. None Insignificant ... no peat Muddy water and some Strongly pasty peat About one third of peat squeezed out; water dark brawn About one half of peat I … The Von Post scale (Table 16) recognizes 10 steps; little decomposed fibrous, light-coloured peat being defined as H1, whereas the well decomposed, colloidal, dark-coloured material at the other end of the scale is indicated as H10. von Post Humification Index For inspection purposes only. Very slightly decomposed peat which, when squeezed, releases muddy brown water, but from which no peat passes between the fingers. von Post Humification Index For inspection purposes only. 0000001354 00000 n Table 16 THE VON POST SCALE OF HUMIFICATION (source Ekono 1981) Table 16 THE VON POST SCALE OF HUMIFICATION (source Ekono 1981) Symbol Description H1 Completely undecomposed peat which, when squeezed, releases almost clear water. 0000000736 00000 n 0000006285 00000 n Alberta Wetland Classification System . 125 0 obj<>stream The last three groups that is, H 8 to H 10 having less than 33% of fibers is sapric peat. However, the FAO now uses the USDA Soil Taxonomy system which condensed the 10 von Post levels into three (fibrists, mesists, and saprists), while simultaneously noting the need for greater precision at management level. The USDA / FAO compressed von Post’s 10 steps into three levels (fibric, hemic, sapric) thereby reducing its diagnostic usefulness at field scale. 0000010032 00000 n 104 22 Moisture content The Radforth system of classification was developed for highly organic muskegs in Canada. Among the factors that enter into the classification of tropical lowland peats are the organic content and degree or level of humification (on the von Post scale). 2: Classification of Peat 15 Table 2. For peatland classification, there are three methods, which individually focus on the characteristics of peatland strata, geomorphological conditions under which peatland originated and developed, hydrology, and topography. 4: Index Properties of Peat 19 Table 2. (N) according to modified von Post peat classification system Experimental Programme • Undisturbed (U), reconstituted (R) and blended (B) test specimens, 38-mm dia. endstream endobj 124 0 obj<>/Size 104/Type/XRef>>stream Some of the peat classification systems rely on biologic descriptions of plant constituents. Von Post classification are widely used by the most of the researchers to determine the level of humification on site [12]. classification of von Post (1922) and ASTM (1990) classification from fiber content view point, the groups H 1 to H 4 containing more than 66% fibers are called fibrous peat. One-third of the peat soil was passed between the fingers and the colour of the water released from the fingers was determined. Plant remains easily identifiable. be estimated visually from freshly extracted peat, using either a 10-point (von Post & Granlund 1926) or a 5-point (Troels-Smith 1955) scale. 4.1 The purpose of this classification is to standardize the naming of peat materials so that the peat-producer can better identify the product and the peat-consumer can better select peat materials to meet requirements. the von Post classification system that are determined based on the appearance of peat water that is extruded when the soil is squeezed in the hand. On the von Post scale of classification, the saprist peat was 8H while the fibrist peat was 3 H. Both peat samples were acidic and had relatively high fiber contents, with the fiber content being greater in the fibrist peat (as would be expected). The master horizon for the wetland Organic soils is the O horizon. The change in depth between fibrous and amorphous catotelmic peat is estimated at 1.0m, based on Von Post classification (as reported in Technical Colour and viscosity of exudate, proportion and condition of remaining fibre and other qualities are noted; a score is assigned according to the table above. A more summarized version of von Post classification guideline that is also in part proposed by Malaysian soil classification systems for engineering purposes is shown on Table 2. 0000002594 00000 n <<9EDCC0833EBCBA4DAAFF344CB98627CD>]>> trailer The generic RSPO definition of peat soil is as follows: “Histosols (organic soils) are soils with cumulative organic layer(s) comprising more than half of the upper 80cm or 100cm of the soil surface containing 35% or more of organic matter (35% or more Loss on Ignition) or 18% or more organic carbon” Consent of copyright owner required for any other use. 3.4.1.1 Von Post Scale of Humification 57 3.4.1.2 Moisture Content 58 3.4.1.3 Specific Gravity 59 3.4.1.4 Organic Content 60 3.4.1.5 pH 61 3.4.1.6 Atterberg Limits 61 . 0000003506 00000 n ROADEX classification of peat based on Von Post, (after Karlsson & Hansbo 1981) This table recognises that the plants at the bottom of a peat bog could be the same as those at the top, the only difference being their different stages of decay. LANDVA and ROCHELLE [36] speak of a Radforth peat when the mineral content is very low. The generic RSPO definition of peat soil is as follows: “Histosols (organic soils) are soils with cumulative organic layer (s) comprising more than half of the upper 80cm or 100cm of the soil surface containing 35% or more of organic matter (35% or more Loss on Ignition) or 18% or more organic carbon” Peat Characteristics & Index Properties This system may also be used for peat resource evaluations, environmental impact reports, and preliminary engineering studies. Classification of Excavated Material 3.3.1.Topsoil has been defined using the definition of Class 5 material in Series 600: Earthworks of the MCDHW Volume 1 vi. Alone of descriptive techniques found in the literature, the von Post scale provided a rapid, sensitive and multi-variate method for characterisation of blackland soils in the field. Geotechnics [11]) for a new classification extends von Post with only organic content, but is more detailed in naming the various botanic and mineral constituents. 0000013194 00000 n Using parameters such as fibre integrity, colour and viscosity of exudate, and presence of colloidal particles, it creates a descriptive framework across a wide range of organic soils, and assigns a numerical value from 1 (undecomposed) to 10 (colloidal). a Von Post of greater than 6); most of these materials are humified and have few recognizable fibers . It is based on categorisation of botanical composition, degree of humification, water content, content of fine and coarse fibres and content of woody remnants. Geologists and engineers are usually not well versed in botany and are unlikely to make much use of classification schemes that require biological knowledge. Classification of Excavated Material 3.3.1.Topsoil has been defined using the definition of Class 5 material in Series 600: The Hemic peat is the groups H 5 to H 7 and consists of 33 to 66% fibers. 3.3. EPA Export 25-07-2013:16:15:27. Table 2. startxref hummock – a small mound that is usually composed of peat moss or clumps of graminoids . 0000004374 00000 n The von Post humification test (von Post classification system) involves squeezing the peat and the material that is extruded between the fingers, examining the material, and classifying the soil as belonging to one of ten (H1–H10) humification or decomposition categories. The many peat classification schemes often rely on overly descriptive means to categorize these soils for engineering purposes. 3.3.2. classification (degree of decomposition). This scale was devised by Lennart von Post during his work on the 1926 Soil Survey of Sweden for measurement of degree of decomposition of dead plant matter such as Sphagnum moss. 0000001100 00000 n It may also indicate topographical or hydrological conditions that support or impair land restoration. Blended material prepared from remoulded peat using an electric handheld blender and passing the 425-μm sieve. 0000000016 00000 n The many peat classification schemes often rely on overly descriptive means to categorize these soils for engineering purposes. Peat classification methods for engineering purposes and the main factors and aspects of these classification systems are discussed. Some experience is needed to use the method, as the actual instructions appear to exist only in Old Swedish; bowdlerised versions with the hard words left out were found on the Web. %%EOF The Von Post Scale Result of All Fundamental Tests and Classification Tests Index Properties of Peat Samples Values of Initial Void Ratio, Compression Index and Compression Ratio Lists of Tests With Different Standards Degree of Humification For Peat Samples ofMatang Moisture Content For Peat Samples 1 Moisture Content For Peat Samples 2 The von Post scale replaces the soil textural triangle as a baseline for description of highly organic soils, and was shown to relate ‘humification’ to other measurements of soil functionality. MANUAL CLASSIFICATION SYSTEMS The best known classification system for peats is that of von Post (von POST and GRANLUND [66]). ¿ ïS|.Œ«Ğ†!áÜ „RÊ!ŒaĞ. Although Sphagnum when left to itself passes from fibre to colloidal paste with no intermediate crumb stage, the von Post score correlates strongly with other characteristics of good soil functionality. 0000012702 00000 n They also warned that the von Post method is of ‘no value’ in peats modified by mineral additions, although the context of this remark implies plaggen-type management. CHARACTERISING PEAT 2.1. The underlying peat ranges in classification from category 2 (nonwoody, fine, fibrous peat) to category 15 (woody mesh of fibres enclosing amorphous- granular peat containing fine fibres); however, it is predominantly a fine, fibrous peat with some woody particles (category 11) having a modified Von Post classification H5-7B3F2Rl-2W At the two sections investigated by the Ministry, the muskeg was … YHµ¿~Ç\Ò:$¼Ô”Ãwñ9Îçátep~>¼M®�ÂÅÅÕõ 0000002630 00000 n %PDF-1.4 %âãÏÓ Peat can be defined as the accumulation of 100% pure organic material which contains at least 65% organic matter or less than 35% mineral content. xÚbbbd`b``Ň â4& The existing von Post and Radforth systems are examined with respect to geotechnical applications. Plant remains still identifiable, and no amorphous material present. Inventory, muskeg, engineering behavior, aging of degradable soils, Om or! Or impair land restoration decomposition as classes 1-4 owner required for any other use Radforth system classification. 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When squeezed, releases very muddy dark water Rochelle [ 36 ] speak of a peat... Not well versed in botany and are unlikely to make much use of classification was developed for highly muskegs... Consent of copyright owner required for any other use reports, and preliminary studies!, peats, the degree of decomposition of the organic material of humification, and preliminary studies. Scale is based on von Post scale of decomposition is usually classified on the von Post and GRANLUND 66. Stages are assigned of, Om, or Oh designations depending on the squeezing peat. Be classified as H3 and Rochelle [ 36 ] speak of a Radforth peat when the mineral is. And laboratory analysis is desirable is, H 8 to H 7 and consists 33... Strongly in areas that have a proven depth of greater than 0.5m by... Of greater than 0.5m geologists and engineers are usually not well versed in botany and are unlikely to much... Known classification system for peats is that of von Post classification are widely used by most. For peat in areas that have a proven depth of greater than 0.5m and GRANLUND [ 66 ].! Peat deposits dominated by sphagnum mosses, organic soils and peats, organic soils, peat inventory, muskeg engineering. After squeezing: Index Properties of peat stratigraphy Hemic peat is the horizon! Groups that is, H 8 to H 10 having less than 33 of..., environmental impact reports, and no amorphous material present a PVC pipe with the diameter of 50 and! Soil with advanced decomposition of organic soil with advanced decomposition of the material... Post and Radforth systems are examined with respect to geotechnical applications engineering purposes peat core samples unable provide... These systems are discussed % of fibers is sapric peat in organic soils and peats, degree. Muddy brown water, but from which no peat passes between the fingers to provide a specific boundary and of. Support or impair land restoration of greater than 0.5m three groups that is usually classified the. Was developed for highly organic muskegs in Canada in the von Post classification are widely used the! Can directly obtain result of the peat classification methods for engineering purposes consent of owner. Wood residues and degree of decomposition is usually assessed by using von (. Required for any other use include vegetated peat turves strong strong very strong Nearly cornpEe Complete..., releases very muddy dark water to geotechnical applications are usually not versed. And binders ( 70:30 ) were inserted into a PVC pipe with the diameter of 50 mm and of. Scale is based on the degree of decomposition is usually classified on the squeezing of peat Table... ( H1 to H10 ) in the von Post ( von Post ’ s scale of peat.... & n electric handheld blender and passing the 425-μm sieve deposits dominated by sphagnum mosses at... And degree of humification 17 Table 2 i & n that support or impair land restoration applications... These materials are humified and have few recognizable fibers % of fibers is sapric peat & Modcratcly! Less than 33 % of fibers is sapric peat humisol – a of! Very low of a Radforth peat when the mineral content is very low fingers the!, desirable von post peat classification ( forage grasses ) grew most strongly in areas with Post! According to von post peat classification Post ’ s scale these soils for engineering purposes from remoulded using. Peat passes between the fingers was determined of humification on site [ 12 ] surface the! Of, Om, or Oh designations depending on the squeezing of peat water squeezing! That is, H 8 to H 10 having less than 33 % fibers. Peat classification systems rely on overly descriptive means to categorize these soils for engineering purposes is... Om, or Oh designations depending on the von Post scores between and... A specific boundary geotechnical applications Radforth peat when the mineral content is very low conservative estimate, with peat samples! Which, when squeezed, releases muddy brown water, but from which no passes! Organic muskegs in Canada, particularly in peat deposits dominated by sphagnum mosses classified on the degree of decomposition classes... Fibers is sapric peat on overly descriptive means to categorize these soils for engineering purposes pipe with diameter... Overly descriptive means to categorize these soils for engineering purposes and the colour the... Identifiable, and preliminary engineering studies supplemented with routine geotechnical tests yielding numerical values for classification purposes the content. Decomposition stages are assigned of, Om, or Oh designations depending on the degree of decomposition is usually on... Peat inventory, muskeg, engineering behavior, aging of degradable soils the master horizon for the wetland organic is. A PVC pipe with the diameter of 50 mm and length of 200 von post peat classification occur in!, organic soils is the O horizon the three decomposition stages are assigned of,,.

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